We use the past perfect to show that an action happened before another action in the past. It can also show that an action happened before a specific time in the past.
When we arrived at the station, the train had already left.
Had Carol studied Russian before she moved to Russia?
We form the past perfect with: had/hadn’t + past participle
+ She had seen the film before.
- She had not seen the film before.
? Had she seen the film before?
+ Yes, she had.
- No, she had not.
Contractions: I'd seen the film before.
I hadn't seen the film before.
No, I hadn't.
Lesson by Nasreen, teacher at EC Cape Town
Complete the sentences with the correct past perfect form: