An infinitive is normally used with the word ‘it’ which is the subject. The structure of this use of an infinitive is 'It is ___________ + infinitive'. 'It' refers to the infinitive. This structure is used in many ways:
It is time to start work.
It is common to think this.
It is nice to see you.
It was a pleasure to meet you.
It is good to see you.
It was great to be with you.
Can – for ability
I can dance Tango.
She can't sing.
Can you speak English?
Can – for permission
Can I sit here?
Can we leave now?
Can I play some music?
Can – for requests or suggestions
Can we have more coffee?
Can I have the bill?
You can go wherever you like.
All modal verbs are auxiliary verbs, which means they can only be used with a main verb. Modal verbs cannot be a main verb.
The modal verbs are; will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might and must. In this module we focus on will and would, and shall and should.
Will is used to show desire, preference, choice or consent:
I will accept your offer.
Will you please be quiet?
Auxiliary verbs help the main verb and are in fact also referred to as 'helping' verbs. Auxiliary verbs are: be, do and have. Modal verbs are also auxiliary verbs but we are going to focus on be, do and have in this module.
The verbs be, do and have can also be used as main verbs or as auxiliary verbs. Here are examples of be, do and have as main verbs:
A preposition links a noun, pronoun or noun phrase to some part of the sentence. Prepositions are always difficult to learn therefore you should practise using the prepositions with the correct phrases or nouns.
Here are few examples of on, at, or in:
On – to show a surface of something
I put my phone on the table.
Don’t leave any important papers on your desk.
Comparative adjectives compare two things. Superlative adjectives compare more than two things.
Forming comparatives and superlatives:
Adjectives that have only one syllable (part) or adjectives that end in 'y' use ‘er’ to form comparatives and 'est' to form superlatives. For adjectives that end in 'y' change the 'y' to 'i' before adding 'er' or 'est'.
Adverbs modify (change) a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
An adverb tells us more about a verb in a sentence.
Peter runs fast.
They listened carefully to the speech.
I usually go out on Saturdays.
She spoke well.
An adverb can describe an adjective in a sentence..
The day was very surprising.
The cake was really tasty.
The film was absolutely amazing.
The Present perfect can be used to describe an action that starts in the past and finishes in the present.
The Present perfect is formed with have/has + past participle.
The Past perfect describes an action that started in the past and finished in another point in the past.
The Past perfect is formed with had + past participle.
A gerund is formed by adding ‘ing’ to the end of a verb. This form is like a noun.
I like listening to music.
Watching TV is not always good for you.
Doing exercise is important.
I spent the whole morning studying.
My hobby is playing the guitar.
They enjoy partying.
In each of the sentences above the –ing form is a noun not a verb.
The gerund can have a possessive noun or pronoun before it.
An infinitive is a verb combined with the word to. Most often, an infinitive acts as a noun in the sentence. Less frequently, it acts as an adjective or an adverb.