The words a, an and the are types of adjectives called articles.
A and an are called indefinite articles.
A is used before singular count nouns.
A car, a book, a child, a holiday
An is used with count nouns beginning with a vowel sound.
An apple, an elephant and notice; an hour but a European. ( the 'h' in hour is silent. The 'e' in European is not a vowel sound)
A conjunctive adverb is a word that connects two clauses to make them one sentence. These adverbs make the sentence shorter.
When you use a conjunctive adverb, put a comma (,) after it. You can also use a semicolon (;).
The weather was not very good on our last holiday in Sweden; however, we still had a good time.
These are some conjunctive adverbs: also, besides, consequently, finally, however, indeed, instead, meanwhile, next, still, then etc.
Of – belonging to, connected with, related to
This is a collection of romantic stories.
I always dreamed of being famous.
He wrote letters of love to me.
This is the best part of the film.
Of – to say what/when/where
I graduated in the autumn of 1999
This is a picture of my son.
He is the owner of the restaurant.
An infinitive is normally used with the word ‘it’ which is the subject. The structure of this use of an infinitive is 'It is ___________ + infinitive'. 'It' refers to the infinitive. This structure is used in many ways:
It is time to start work.
It is common to think this.
It is nice to see you.
It was a pleasure to meet you.
It is good to see you.
It was great to be with you.
Can – for ability
I can dance Tango.
She can't sing.
Can you speak English?
Can – for permission
Can I sit here?
Can we leave now?
Can I play some music?
Can – for requests or suggestions
Can we have more coffee?
Can I have the bill?
You can go wherever you like.
All modal verbs are auxiliary verbs, which means they can only be used with a main verb. Modal verbs cannot be a main verb.
The modal verbs are; will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might and must. In this module we focus on will and would, and shall and should.
Will is used to show desire, preference, choice or consent:
I will accept your offer.
Will you please be quiet?
Auxiliary verbs help the main verb and are in fact also referred to as 'helping' verbs. Auxiliary verbs are: be, do and have. Modal verbs are also auxiliary verbs but we are going to focus on be, do and have in this module.
The verbs be, do and have can also be used as main verbs or as auxiliary verbs. Here are examples of be, do and have as main verbs:
A preposition links a noun, pronoun or noun phrase to some part of the sentence. Prepositions are always difficult to learn therefore you should practise using the prepositions with the correct phrases or nouns.
Here are few examples of on, at, or in:
On – to show a surface of something
I put my phone on the table.
Don’t leave any important papers on your desk.
Comparative adjectives compare two things. Superlative adjectives compare more than two things.
Forming comparatives and superlatives:
Adjectives that have only one syllable (part) or adjectives that end in 'y' use ‘er’ to form comparatives and 'est' to form superlatives. For adjectives that end in 'y' change the 'y' to 'i' before adding 'er' or 'est'.
Adverbs modify (change) a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
An adverb tells us more about a verb in a sentence.
Peter runs fast.
They listened carefully to the speech.
I usually go out on Saturdays.
She spoke well.
An adverb can describe an adjective in a sentence..
The day was very surprising.
The cake was really tasty.
The film was absolutely amazing.