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Grammar

The definite article

Average: 4.5 (23 votes)

'The'- the definite article is the most frequent word in English.

We use 'the' when we think that the person we are talking to or writing to knows what we are referring to and when or because there is only one within the context or surrounding relevant to the conversation, or if there is only one in the world.

Linking words 3

Average: 3.7 (22 votes)

Here are some common linking words:

Past perfect

Average: 3.8 (26 votes)

When we talk about something that happened in the past, we might want to refer to something that happened before that time. To do this we use the past perfect.

Look at these two sentences:
My friend left the bar at 10.00
I arrived at the bar at 10.30

Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Continuous

Average: 3.7 (24 votes)

We use the present perfect tense to talk about things where there is a connection between the past and the present.

He has worked with three different companies.
He started working sometime in the past. Up to now he has worked for three companies.

Linking words

Average: 4.3 (24 votes)

Look at how these sentences are linked:

1 Because it was raining, we stayed at home.
2 Because of the rain, we stayed at home.
3 Due to the rain, we stayed at home.
(Because + clause) – (Because of + noun) (Due + to + noun)

-ed and –ing adjectives

Average: 3.6 (30 votes)

-ed adjectives

We often confuse adjectives that end both in –ed and –ing. (interested or interesting, bored or boring etc.)

Adjectives that end in –ed describe emotions – they tell us about how a person feels about something or even their opinion about something.

I’m surprised to see you.
He’s interested in fashion
I was bored during the lecture.
I was tired so I went to bed.

Third Conditionals and Mixed Conditionals

Average: 3.9 (11 votes)

Third Conditionals are sentences with two clauses – an ‘if' clause and a main clause – that describe the past. They are used to describe ‘something that didn’t happen’.

We would have arrived on time if we had left earlier.
We left late so we arrived late.

If I had studied harder at school I would have gone to university.
I didn’t study very hard so I didn’t go to university.

Second conditional

Average: 3.9 (28 votes)

The second conditional is a structure used to talk about impossible or imaginary situations.

If I won a lot of money I’d travel the world.
Where would you live if you could live anywhere in the world?
If he didn’t argue with everyone all the time, he would have a more relaxed life.

To form the second conditional we use: If+past simple and would+infinitive

Like and As

Average: 4.1 (25 votes)

As and Like are both used to compare situations or actions. But here are some differences:

As

We use as to talk about something we do or how something is used.

I worked as a graphic designer for eight years.
She used her jacket as an umbrella when it started raining.

'As adjective as' is used to compare things or people.

It's not as cold as it used to be.
He studied as hard as he could for the exam.

First Conditional Lesson

Average: 3.2 (25 votes)

Dave is 18 and lives in Bath, England. He has decided to go to Moscow for a week. This will his first time abroad. He has also decided to travel alone. This is the conversation he has with his friend Pete.

Pete – How will you communicate with the Russians when you don’t even speak the language?

Dave – I’ve been practising and I’m taking this phrase book with me. If I can’t remember a word, I’ll look it up.