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Vocabulary

A lot of/lots of - much/many

Average: 3.5 (24 votes)

A lot of, lots of, much and many are used in relation to count and non-count nouns so it is useful to remember which nouns are ‘count’ (countable) and ‘non-count’ (uncountable) first:

Countable and uncountable nouns

Countable nouns or ‘count’ nouns are those nouns that can be counted:
An apple, two apples etc.

Uncountable nouns or ‘non-count’ nouns are those nouns that cannot be counted: water, bread etc. Uncountable nouns take a singular verb and are not used with a/an.

Every, Each

Average: 4 (16 votes)

Every and each are used with singular (countable) ‘count’ nouns. It is useful to remember which nouns are ‘count’ (countable) and ‘non-count’ (uncountable) first:

Countable and uncountable nouns

Countable nouns or ‘count’ nouns are those nouns that can be counted:
An apple, two apples etc.

Adverbials

Average: 3.5 (13 votes)

This is the first of a series of lessons on adverbials. In this lesson we look at why we use adverbials, how they are formed and where they go in a sentence.

Lesson by Tristan, English teacher at EC Malta

Adverbials are used to give more information about a verb. Adverbs can be placed in different groups according to their ‘function’.

Noun Phrases and Determiners

Average: 3.3 (17 votes)

Noun phrases start with determiners which are placed at the beginning of these phrases. Determiners are specific or general.

Lesson by Tristan, English teacher at EC Malta English school

Requests and Permission

Average: 3.5 (23 votes)

There are many ways of making requests and asking for permission in English. Consider these situations:

Modals C – should/ought to (Obligation and Probability)

Average: 3.2 (13 votes)

In this lesson we are looking at the use of ‘should’ and ‘ought to’ for obligation and probability. As with other modals the meaning given to the verb depends on the context it is used in.

Modals B – must/have to (Necessity – Deduction)

Average: 3.2 (12 votes)

In this series of lessons on modals we are dividing the meanings of modals into intrinsic and extrinsic meanings. In this lesson we are looking at the intrinsic and extrinsic meanings of ‘must’ and ‘have to/have got to’.

Look at these sentences:
My neighbours must control or discipline their children. They’re too noisy.
You’ve been working all week. You must be tired.

Modals A – may/might (Permission, Possibility)

Average: 3.8 (23 votes)

The authorities must do something about the traffic congestion.
John’s not here yet. He must be stuck in traffic.

To understand the difference in meaning of these two examples it’s best to look at modal verbs using the words intrinsic and extrinsic which are often used to describe modal verbs.

Go and Do

Average: 4.1 (26 votes)

Go and do can be used as verbs that are not as important as the nouns they are used with. We call these verbs delexical verbs.

Go
Do you want to go swimming tomorrow?
We went for a long walk in the park yesterday

Do
I have to do the shopping this morning.
She does the cooking, she’s a better chef than me.

Reflexive Pronouns

Average: 4.1 (22 votes)

When the subject of a verb is also the object we use a reflexive pronoun.
She looked at herself in the mirror.
‘She’ is the subject and also the object in this sentence so ‘herself’ is used.

The reflexive pronouns are:
Singular – myself, yourself, himself, herself and itself
Plural – ourselves, yourselves, themselves