The words a, an and the are types of adjectives called articles.
A and an are called indefinite articles.
A is used before singular count nouns.
A car, a book, a child, a holiday
An is used with count nouns beginning with a vowel sound.
An apple, an elephant and notice; an hour but a European. ( the 'h' in hour is silent. The 'e' in European is not a vowel sound)
A conjunctive adverb is a word that connects two clauses to make them one sentence. These adverbs make the sentence shorter.
When you use a conjunctive adverb, put a comma (,) after it. You can also use a semicolon (;).
The weather was not very good on our last holiday in Sweden; however, we still had a good time.
These are some conjunctive adverbs: also, besides, consequently, finally, however, indeed, instead, meanwhile, next, still, then etc.
Of – belonging to, connected with, related to
This is a collection of romantic stories.
I always dreamed of being famous.
He wrote letters of love to me.
This is the best part of the film.
Of – to say what/when/where
I graduated in the autumn of 1999
This is a picture of my son.
He is the owner of the restaurant.
Can – for ability
I can dance Tango.
She can't sing.
Can you speak English?
Can – for permission
Can I sit here?
Can we leave now?
Can I play some music?
Can – for requests or suggestions
Can we have more coffee?
Can I have the bill?
You can go wherever you like.
All modal verbs are auxiliary verbs, which means they can only be used with a main verb. Modal verbs cannot be a main verb.
The modal verbs are; will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might and must. In this module we focus on will and would, and shall and should.
Will is used to show desire, preference, choice or consent:
I will accept your offer.
Will you please be quiet?
Auxiliary verbs help the main verb and are in fact also referred to as 'helping' verbs. Auxiliary verbs are: be, do and have. Modal verbs are also auxiliary verbs but we are going to focus on be, do and have in this module.
The verbs be, do and have can also be used as main verbs or as auxiliary verbs. Here are examples of be, do and have as main verbs:
A preposition links a noun, pronoun or noun phrase to some part of the sentence. Prepositions are always difficult to learn therefore you should practise using the prepositions with the correct phrases or nouns.
Here are few examples of on, at, or in:
On – to show a surface of something
I put my phone on the table.
Don’t leave any important papers on your desk.
Comparative adjectives compare two things. Superlative adjectives compare more than two things.
Forming comparatives and superlatives:
Adjectives that have only one syllable (part) or adjectives that end in 'y' use ‘er’ to form comparatives and 'est' to form superlatives. For adjectives that end in 'y' change the 'y' to 'i' before adding 'er' or 'est'.
Verbs are either in the active voice or in the passive voice. In the active voice the relationship between the verb and the subject is clear:
The company gave Paul a car.
This sentence is active. The company (subject) gave (verb)
In the passive the subject of the sentence is not the 'doer'; the person doing the action.
Paul was given a company car.
Verbs that show actions or 'action verbs' are the most used verbs.
Action verbs take 's' in the third person when they are singular verbs:
He lives in Athens.
She works in the city.
It rains a lot in February.
Negative sentences need 'do not', 'does not', or 'did not'.
He does not live in Athens.
She does not work in the city.
It does not rain in August.
It did not rain in June.